Hello, my name is Walter Unglaub and this is how to solve polymer equations. When considering polymers and polymerization processes in biology and chemistry, there are many, many different scenarios in physical systems which you can write mathematical equations for. So for this video I'm just going to consider the carothors equation which is used for simple linear polymers and in this particular physical system that I'm going to consider I'm going to consider two monomers in equal molar quantities. So the point is I start with a bunch of monomers and these molecules will form polymers. So as time progresses as time increases I'm going to have the polymers and the number of isolated molecules will decrease over time. So I'm going to assume that initially that t equals zero the number of molecules or monomers in my physical system is going to be equal to N zero. So the carothors equation describes essentially the ratio of how much polymer you have over the rest of the molecules. So the average number is going to be equal to one over one minus p. Where this p is a fraction of polymerization hence why it's called p and is going to be equal to the initial number of molecules minus the current number divided by the initial number again. So if I consider starting out with 100 molecules and at a certain point in time I have an average value equal to ten, then the question is how many molecules do I have left before they are polymerized. Well this simply becomes an algebra problem and if I substitute this definition of this polymerization ratio in to this equation, I get one over one minus N not minus N over N not and this becomes one over N not minus N not plus N because this negative sign carries through. Divided by N not. Now this N not goes up top and this N not cancels out this one so I get a very simple equation N not over N is equal to the average number. So if the average number is ten and I started out with 100 then I have a total of N not over the average number which is going to be equal to 100 molecules divided ten and that simplifies to just ten. So I have ten monomers or ten molecules in general left in my batch. Originally I started with 100 and at some point later I end up with just ten. This equation can be made more explicit and more complicated if I'm not dealing with linear polymers or if I have multiple monomers that are not present in equal molar quantities. But for this simple example this is one way in which to solve a polymer equation. My name is Walter Unglaub and this is how to solve polymer equations. 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Air Jordan IX 9 Powder Black Grey,Byline: KEVIN MODESTIIt must be the shoes: That could be trainer Jenine Sahadi's excuse on Saturday if tough old Megan's Interco fails to become the first four time winner in the history of the California Cup races.Sahadi had hoped her sore footed gelding, the favorite in the $175,000 Cal Cup Mile, would be allowed to race in protective hind shoes with 3/16th inch toe grabs'' cleats for extra traction.But the toe grabs were ruled to be in violation of rules meant to prevent churning hooves from chewing up Santa Anita's year old turf course. Those rules require flat shoes or protrusions of no more than about 1/16th of an inch for horses racing on the grass.So Sahadi's horseshoer will grind down the toe grabs, leaving intact the protective parts of the shoes, which have bars connecting the back ends to prevent the hooves from spreading on contact.It's the lesser of two evils,'' horseshoer Wesley Champagne said at Sahadi's barn Thursday afternoon. We might lose a length in traction, but it's better than losing five lengths to soreness.''Megan's Interco has quarter cracks in both hind feet, and hasn't raced since he won the Cal Cup Classic on the dirt track last November. He won the Cal Cup Mile in 1993 and '95.At age 8, he will be racing for only the 30th time but going for his 15th victory, which would put his career earnings over $1 million for breeder owner Milton Bronson.It's been difficult (training him for the latest comeback), because he's been plagued by foot problems,'' Sahadi said after Megan's Interco and jockey Corey Nakatani drew post 6 in a 10 horse field that includes the consistent Gastown. But that's the story of this horse's life.''Sahadi said she worries that without toe grabs, Megan's Interco will slip and slide on the turf, though the problem should be the same for everybody.Trainers have blamed the shoe restrictions for recent injuries, which include the suspensory ligament injury that has knocked Sahadi's Rainbow Dancer out of the Breeders' Cup Turf.Horses get hurt more easily wearing flat shoes,'' trainer Ron McAnally said early in the Oak Tree season. They can't get ahold of (the track).''Said Sahadi: It's like running in Keds as opposed to running in track shoes.''Trainers have said the flat shoes cause front runners to spin their wheels.'' But Oak Tree racing director Tom Robbins said the slow times and the increase in come from behind winners has more to do with changes in maintenance procedures on the turf course that was renovated in the summer of '96.Add Cal Cup: The $250,000 Cal Cup Classic came up weak, so the spotlight at Saturday's nine race card for California bred horses will fall on popular old timers Megan's Interco and Letthebighossroll.The 9 year old Big Hoss, the '91 Cal Cup Sprint winner, drew the outside in a 10 horse field for the 6 furlong race. Chris McCarron will ride for dominant Cal Cup trainer Bob Baffert.Two entrants in the $100,000 Cal Cup Juvenile Fillies will be trying to earn trips to the Breeders' Cup Juvenile Fillies: Career Collection and Griselle. Cal breds are 0 for 35 in the Breeders' Cup.Sneak preview: Hollywood Park this week put out the first official list of horses expected to run in the seven Breeders' Cup races Nov. 8. Notable:Only six horses are on the list for the Classic: favorites Gentlemen and Touch Gold, as well as Behrens, Deputy Commander, Formal Gold and Wisky Wisdom. Four others are given an outside chance'' at starting: Skip Away, whose owners would have to pay $800,000 to make him eligible; Honor Glide (more likely to try the Mile), Singspiel (Turf) and Spinning World (Mile).Only the Mile would exceed the 14 horse limit if entries were taken now. Sixteen are listed, half of them trained in Southern California.The race with the heaviest local flavor is the Sprint, with nine SoCal horses on the list. The opposite is the Turf, with McAnally trained Rajpoute the only hometown representative.Baffert and D. Wayne Lukas dominate the fields for the 2 year old races. Baffert trains Souvenir Copy, Johnbill and Pleasant Drive for the Juvenile, and Vivid Angel, Eastside Westside and Marie J for the Juvenile Fillies. Lukas trains Grand Slam, Double Honor and Time Limit for the Juvenile, and Love Lock and Well Chosen for the Juvenile Fillies.Four fillies and mares aim to challenge males in the Sprint: Advancing Star, Exotic Wood, Pas de Response and Track Gal.At last count, the European contingent will number less than half of the 17 who raced at Santa Anita in 1993, the last time the Breeders' Cup was held here.But two Europeans would be favored if betting started today: Singspiel in the Turf and Spinning World in the Mile. Other favorites: Favorite Trick, Grand Slam and Souvenir Copy in the Juvenile; Hidden Lake, Sharp Cat and Twice the Vice in the Distaff; Richter Scale in the Sprint; and Countess Diana in the Juvenile Fillies.
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Six Techniques To Halt Boxer Puppy Biting Problems: First Technique: Know that Boxer puppy biting is a normal behavior that signals the development of their Boxer bite inhibition. Puppies, like human infants, bite from time to time during their teething stage. Mother dogs usually teach their young to bite and chew their food, not humans, in order for them to survive. However, if puppies don't learn these and during instances that they will get themselves isolated before their mothers can get the chance to socialize with them, the responsibility of Boxer training is left to the owner until their later life. Second technique: Always remember to provide your Boxer social opportunities with other young and adult dogs. This will open a chance for him to inhibit his Boxer puppy biting as he recognizes the reaction of other dogs when he bites them hardly. Eventually, he will learn Boxer biting without inflicting any pain and to avoid giving any pressure in his jaw while doing this. This way, you can free people as well as other animals from untoward incidences. Third technique: Another method is to train Boxer dogs on how to utilize his teeth. Give him chew toys to give him something to chew besides a person's body part. If he starts Boxer puppy biting a person, give him a yell. Say "No" loudly to assert that you are not happy with that particular behavior. If he does not obey, remove yourself away from him. Boxers do not like to be left alone. They will, then, associate this demeanor with being isolated. There is no way that you should strike at them or else, it will just aggravate their Boxer aggression. Fourth technique: A certain method to ward off Boxer puppy biting involves Boxer obedience training using water. This is done through spraying water to your pup with a spray bottle or water gun every time he Boxer bites. It should be done lightly and not intended to harm him. See to it that you catch him while biting a valuable object, like shoes, or another person for that matter. Repeat this 2 to 3 times a day. In this way, he will associate Boxer biting with getting wet. Soon, he will come to realize that his behavior is not proper. Fifth technique: Provide any form of incentives for his outstanding behavior. Majority if the dog professionals consider positive reinforcement as the most effective way to stop Boxer biting concerns. The dog's instinct is to please you and this technique will help him figure out what's good. To increase your puppy's attention span, use food and affection as incentives. Give him praise and reward immediately after a good job to make him realize that what he did was right. Sixth technique: In case the Boxer puppy biting issues have not resolved yet, then you may think of other ways to stop it. Dogs are pack oriented. Once they start to mature, they will be looking for their leader. And it should be you! If you haven't established leadership as they reach this stage in life, there is a possibility that they will Boxer bite others in the group, including you. During mealtime, let him wait for you to finish. Do not allow him to eat ahead of you because he might think that he is the subordinate. Boxer puppy biting might be hard to resolve. But with the right encouragement, everything will turn out the way you expect it to be. However, if these techniques do not work at all, you may seek for a veterinarian's opinion. Air Jordan IX 9 Powder Black Grey With client in Ch. 11, you could be stuck with 'ghost card' billBy Mark Pestronk Q: A long standing corporate client of our travel agency just filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. The corporate account pays for tickets using a cardless credit card account system known as a "ghost card." Can we continue to charge tickets to the ghost card? If not, do we have to refund tickets that we innocently charged after the bankruptcy filing took place but before we learned about it? Do corporations typically pay their credit card bills in cases like this? If the corporation does not pay its bill, do we run the risk of getting debit memos? Will we have to refund our transaction fees? A: The news I bring you is all bad: You must stop using the ghost card immediately; you will probably have to refund all unused tickets charged to the card after the bankruptcy filing; you may have to refund months of fees; and worst of all, you do indeed face the risk of debit memos for tickets covered by any unpaid credit card bills. Corporate oriented agencies tend to think of corporate credit cards as enablers of success. With corporate cards, even small agencies can issue tickets for major corporations without fear of cash flow problems. Although corporate cards, whether plastic or ghost, have solved agencies' cash flow problems, they have never been risk free. Bankruptcies can trigger a chain of events that can lead to travel agency responsibility for the debts of the corporate client. A corporation that files for Chapter 11 protection is not allowed to pay any outstanding bills without the court's consent, which will not be given for many months, if ever. To ensure that a corporation does not pay, courts generally require companies and individuals to cancel their credit card accounts as soon as a bankruptcy filing takes place. Since you cannot charge tickets to a canceled card, you will probably need to refund any tickets you innocently charged before you found out about the bankruptcy. When a company does not pay its credit card bills, it is up to the credit card issuer to decide whom to go after. By "issuer," I mean the bank that issued the Visa or MasterCard to the corporation, American Express, Citi bank in the case of Diners Club, or the Air Travel Card (formerly known as the UATP card). The card issuer generally has the legal right to charge back the merchant that honored the card if the merchant cannot produce a signed and imprinted card charge form. It does not matter that the absence of the signed form and the bankruptcy are totally unrelated. In practice, some Visa and MasterCard issuing banks do not exercise their chargeback rights in cases of bankruptcy, but, unfortunately, some do. American Express and Diners Club sometimes do so but usually do not, and Air Travel Card does not do so, in my experience. If the issuer charges back, the airline invariably sends a debit memo. If you have no card imprint and signature, which is, of course, physically impossible to obtain in the case of ghost cards, the airline will enforce the debit memo. In the case of service fees, the issuer that decides to charge back will take the money from ARC, which will force you to refund your fees if you charged them using ARC's service. offer 'Beercation' packageThe JW Marriott Chicago has partnered with the Lagunitas Brewing Co. to offer the Lagunitas Beercation package through Dec. 31.
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